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Project Organization

Introduction
Objective
Concepts
Documentation
Steps
Tutorial


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Project Organization

Introduction

The purpose of the Project Organization technique is to select the people whose involvement will be necessary for a project to succeed and to form these people into an organization structure to manage and carry out the project.
The technique is used to define the roles to be performed and identify those people required for the project. Training requirements are identified if the required skills are not available. In this way, the technique allows for the early definition of key players and helps to avoid ill-defined task responsibility.
The technique is used at the very start of a project to establish the minimum organization for the project to commence. It is used during Project Initiation and Planning to establish the correct Project Organization for the project. In subsequent stages the technique is used to review and modify the Project Organization as the project progresses.
If you have some people already assigned to your project, this technique may be used to revise or confirm these assignments.
The Project Organization cannot be established in isolation. It depends on, and may affect, the scope, schedule, costs and risks of the project.

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Project Organization

Objective

To
  • select and prepare the people whose involvement will be necessary for the project to succeed.
in a way that
  • clearly identifies roles and responsibilities
  • ensures that the best individuals to fulfill roles and responsibilities are selected
  • identifies training required to enable individuals to fulfill their roles and responsibilities on the project
  • gains the appropriate allocation of resource time to the project
  • ensures that all major interest groups are appropriately represented
  • considers the project and stage schedules in line with available resources
so that
  • the project benefits from having a group of people who can operate in an integrated fashion and who understand exactly the roles they must play in contributing to the success of the project.

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Project Organization

Concepts

Roles
Project Organization Model
Adopter Populations Curve
Interactive Development
Process Quality Assurance

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Concepts

Roles

The Project Organization technique uses the concept of roles. A role is a clearly defined set of responsibilities that need to be performed for a project to be successful.
People are assigned to roles and so are assigned responsibilities. In general, one person can fill many roles and each role could be filled by more than one individual. There are some roles that should be assigned to only one person, e.g. Project Sponsor. There are also some roles that should not be performed by the same person, e.g. Project Manager and Project Sponsor.
The Project Organization technique uses a standard organization model that defines a complete set of roles and responsibilities for a project. This provides a basis for defining the specific roles and responsibilities required for a particular project. In this way, the Project Organization technique can be used to develop the optimal organization for any type and size of project.

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Concepts

Project Organization Model

The standard organization model is shown in the following diagram.
The boxes on the Project Organization chart represent roles or groups of roles that are filled for a project. These roles are described below.


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Project Organization Model

Steering Committee

The Project Organization technique is concerned with establishing the correct organization for a single project. The project may be very large involving many people for several years. However, it does not provide details on the organization required for an overall program of projects that, for example, may be undertaken as the result of developing a Strategic Information Technology Plan. This detailed information is provided in the Portfolio Management for Projects process.
However, because there is a relationship between individual projects and the Steering Committee, the Steering Committee is described at a high level in the paragraphs below.
The Steering Committee is the executive management that has the authority to approve, control, and cancel projects in the corporate projects portfolio. They are the body of officers that provide funding for the projects. This ensures that the primary criterion used in selecting projects are based on corporate objectives and costs.
Project Boards report to the Steering Committee, usually through a Projects Office Analyst assigned to his/her project. The Steering Committee works directly with the Projects Office in receiving summary data concerning projects. If project reports show significant issues/problems, the Steering Committee may initiate an investigation of the project and either pull funding for the project or require modifications to the project.
The Steering Committee consists of a Steering Committee Chair and members. The Steering Committee has the following responsibilities:
  • provide coordination and deployment of the Portfolio Management for Projects function.
  • review and approve/reject requests for new projects or major enhancements to existing systems and provide resource budgets for approved projects
  • provide resolution of any cross-project priority or resource conflicts that cannot be resolved at lower levels
  • review evaluation and other project reports received from the Projects Office.
  • validates that project priorities are in alignment with the corporate strategic direction
  • initiates investigations of projects that are failing to meet cost, time, and quality requirements

Steering Committee Chair
The CIO is usually the owner of a Steering Committee. Others would be a CFO, COO, or any high level senior manager or VP who reports to the CEO or that has been assigned (by the CEO) to chair this committee. This role leads the Steering Committee for the Portfolio Management for Projects function. This person has the ultimate authority to fund projects and, if need be, cancel them. The Steering Committee Chair also has an understanding of the company's strategic direction. There should only be one person assigned to this role.
Steering Committee Members
The Steering Committee members consist of vice presidents or directors; they are the second level of command below the CIO, CFO, or Senior Vice Presidents of business functional units. The Steering Committee has the authority to approve, control, and cancel projects in the projects portfolio.


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Project Organization Model

Projects Office

The Projects Office provides an environment to manage multiple projects within the enterprise through aggregated project planning and enterprise resource management. Best practices as well as state-of-the-art approaches to project management are defined by the Projects Office. The Project Manager sends project data to the Projects Office. The office is responsible for the measurement of projects in the areas of time lines, budgets, costs, resource allocations, and overall project portfolio positioning. The measurements are against the Steering Committee’s overall prioritization or measurement plan. The Projects Office provides regular performance reports to the Steering Committee, which provide measurements of actual project performance against planned. If adjustments are necessary, the Projects Office passes the Steering Committee’s decision to the Project Manager and Project Sponsor (who is also chair of the Project Board).

Director
This role is the lead authority of the Projects Office, The Director is responsible for reporting status of projects to Steering Committee, providing recommendations to Steering Committee, consolidation of project data, and giving direction to Project Office analysts.
Projects Office Analyst
This role is a member of the Projects Office staff that is responsible for coordinating and conducting high level business analysis meetings, facilitating in project proposal writing, facilitating in the project planning process, collecting and synthesizing project status information, generating reports, and ensuring project history files are updated.

They work with individual Project Managers and Project Boards to collect the appropriate project data and facilitate communication between the Steering Committee and individual projects.


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Project Organization Model

Project Board

The Project Board is the senior level of Project Organization and has the responsibility of ensuring the continued integrity of the project from all points of view. The structure of the Project Board reflects the tripartite responsibility that exists in any project, namely the Business, Customer, and Technical interests. The Project Board should be prepared to recommend termination of the project if necessary.
The Project Board's responsibility is to direct the project, to ensure its success and that the overall business needs are being satisfied. This group should continually assess the project's viability and alignment with the sponsoring organization's strategic objectives. The Project Board's membership should be kept to 3 - 5 individuals who meet every 2 - 3 months or when a high level decision is required.

Project Sponsor
This role chairs the Project Board and is ultimately responsible for the project's success or failure. This person has the authority to allocate funding for the project (based on funds provided by the Steering Committee, via the Projects Office) and, if need be, cancel the project. Although focused on the goals and objectives of his/her organization, the Sponsor also has an understanding of the company's strategic direction. There should only be one person assigned to this role.
Customer Representative
This role represents the customers or users most affected by the final results of the project. This role has the authority to allocate business resources to the project team. This role also has the responsibility to ensure that the project's results will work in the operational level of the business. This role may require more than one individual if there are multiple user or customer groups impacted by the project.
Technical Representative
This role represents the technical interests of the project within the corporation. This role ensures that the technical deliverables of the project are consistent with the overall technical strategy of the corporation. This role also has the authority to allocate technical resources to the project team.


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Project Organization Model

Key Stakeholders

There are likely to be a number of key individuals within the organization that have an interest in, and can facilitate the project. In order to keep the Project Board membership to a practical size, these individuals can be considered as Key Stakeholders and not members of the Project Board. They will receive regular progress reports on the project, and may be invited to attend some Project Board meetings for specific reasons.

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Project Organization Model

Project (Stage) Manager

The Project Manager is responsible for the day to day planning, management, and control of the project. This includes the successful completion of the stage products, on time, within budget and to the specified quality standards. This role leads the Project Team and reports project progress and issues to the Project Board.
The Project Manager may be recruited from any area concerned with the project, or could be from outside the immediate organization.
The Project Organization technique allows for different people to take responsibility for the different stages of a project. The term Stage Manager is used to describe a Project Manager that is responsible for only part of a project.
Although, it is best to have only one Project Manager at a time, some organizations may have a business Stage Manager and a technical Stage Manager at the same time on a project.

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Project Organization Model

Project Coordinators

There are three supporting roles to the Stage Manager to help with planning, customer and technical aspects of the project. These roles ensure that the main interests being served by the project are properly represented at the working level, e.g. through participation in quality reviews. This also provides continuity in the day to day coordination of the project especially if there are changes of Project Manager.
These roles could be performed by separate individuals or team members. These roles may be filled by the Project Manager if the project is relatively small and the project manager has time to perform the associated responsibilities.
Planning Coordinator
This role is responsible for the planning and administrative aspects of the project. The Planning Coordinator must:

Have a sound knowledge of Project Management Standards and tools

Have strong administrative skills

Have a broad understanding of the business and technical aspects involved.

Work with related software engineering group (e.g. testing, quality assurance, development, etc.) tp ensure the defined plan is supported by all involved/committed groups.

Business Coordinator
This role ensures that the operational interests of the business are being fully represented in the day-to-day operations of the project. This role also helps identify who from the business areas can add value to the project team. This role must have:

Reasonably detailed knowledge of the business requirement and expectations of the project.

Contacts and influence at the working levels addressed by the project.

The ability to understand the wider business context and any areas impacted indirectly.

Knowledge of necessary or desirable operational standards.

Good knowledge of agreed Project Management Standards.

Technical Coordinator
This role helps ensure the technical quality of the deliverables being produced. The Technical Coordinator assists in identifying all the technical tasks and standards that need to be followed. This role also can identify resources to facilitate the production of project deliverables. This role must have:

Knowledge of all major technical aspects to be covered

Contacts for other technical areas affected.

Knowledge of the technical methods and standards applicable.

An awareness of the broad Business Partner requirements.

An awareness of agreed Project Management Standards.


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Project Organization Model

Project Team

The people that do the actual work on the project are the project team. The team members may be from the technical and/or the business communities in an organization.
Business
These people are from the various business areas within the project's scope and are responsible for defining requirements to agreed level of detail. They report to the Project Manager during their involvement on the project.
Technical
These people produce the technical deliverables of the project. They report to the Project Manager during the life of the project.


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Project Organization Model

Key Resources

Key Resources are people the project team can call on to provide expert knowledge in specific business or technical areas. Key Resources are necessary in areas where the project team lacks experience or detailed knowledge. Key Resources may contribute to the creation of stage deliverables by providing information and may also review stage deliverables.
Examples are contract negotiator, database administrator, workshop facilitator, training developer.
Key Resources may change during the project depending on the skills/knowledge required to support project activities.

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Project Organization Model

Intervening Managers

Project Organizations often cross line management structures. The Project Manager may report directly to senior managers for a project, bypassing his or her immediate manager(s). This can cause "political" problems in some organizations. The Project Organization technique recognizes this by having an optional role in the Project Organization model to include these 'intervening managers'. These people need to be kept informed about the project activities and progress, especially where their direct report staff are being utilized, but do not set project priorities or direction.

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Concepts

Adopter Populations Curve

This bell curve model represents an understanding of the diffusion process--how different segments of an adopter population come to accept an innovation. Types of adopters are distinguished from each other by their characteristic response to adoption of a new innovation/technology.
Innovators: Include the radical fringe, the “bleeding edge.” These are technology enthusiasts: the first people to adopt a new technology. Inventors also fall here. They understand that the technology may be buggy--and that there may be glitches. Innovators will try anything, and are first to pull freeware and shareware off the net. They don’t need or particularly want documentation. Innovators serve as barometers of the future, signaling what may be important downstream.
Early adopters: Visionaries; unlike innovators, these people may not be technologists. They have the insight to match an emerging technology to strategic advantage. Early adopters are more interested in how a technology can help them accomplish their business objectives than in the technology itself. They will take calculated risks for competitive advantage.
Early majority: These are the pragmatists; they relate well to technology but are driven by a strong sense of practicality. They want to see well-established references before purchasing new technology. Early majority people will take limited risks, but demand good technical support and documentation, and vendors who know about the business domain.
Late majority: These are the conservatives, who by and large are not comfortable with change; they usually wait until the process/product is accepted as a standard. These people require lots of support if they are to willingly adopt a new process or product. Late majority people also want price advantage. Often, when they adopt/purchase, the technology is a commodity.
Laggards: skeptics; laggards cannot stand to change and do not want much to do with the new process or product. They are quick to point out what is wrong with the process or product. “Over my dead body” is their mantra. These people are great for niche work; for example, COBOL programmers maintaining legacy software, or coming out of retirement to work on the Year 2000 problem in COBOL programs.
Summary Comments
This information on adopter populations can be helpful in a number of ways
  • Early adopters are good breakthrough team members; they can help a rollout team to test and evaluate the whole product solution--their input is then used to create the final, polished version that will be used in rollout.
  • Early adopters can envision the missing components or elements that it is necessary to build/customize in order to make a vendor’s product work in their home environment.
  • Innovators may be helpful here too, but are a riskier choice, since innovators like to build their own solution, which may be at odds with the rollout team’s direction.
  • Mainstream adopters (the early majority) need the whole-product solution. They will do little to compensate for lack of its availability or missing parts.
This model is only intended as a guide. People do not belong exclusively to one category, and it is foolhardy to assign them as such. Some people have different orientations depending on the subject area, or with respect to different parts of their life. Typically, innovators and early adopters are more willing to tolerate risk or ambiguity. However, early and late majority segments may not simply be risk adverse--they may be choosing the risks they are willing and able to absorb.
Moore, Geoffrey. (1991). Crossing the chasm: Marketing and selling technology products to mainstream customers. New York: Harper Business.
Rogers, Everett. (1995). Diffusion of innovations. 4th edition. New York: The Free Press.

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Concepts

Interactive Development

A good environment for assigning/volunteering for Project Organization roles often takes place in an Interactive Development workshop. In this manner, many of the roles can be identified with a particular individual. Responsibility and team building starts here.

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Concepts

Process Quality Assurance

What is Process Quality Assurance?
The PQA Organization
Relationship with Development Project Organization
PQA Personnel
PQA Responsibilities

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Process Quality Assurance

What is Process Quality Assurance?

Process Quality Assurance (PQA) is a management tool that assures that the officially established process is actually being properly implemented. The goal of PQA is to ensure full compliance with the established standards and procedures for the software and the software development process.
This section describes the PQA Organization, how it relates to a development organization and the roles and responsibilities of the PQA Organization. This information is included here because it is closely related to Project Organization.

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Process Quality Assurance

The PQA Organization

It is important that the PQA organization be a separate organization from the software development organization. Project schedules are always tight, and project managers may not be worried about inadequate test plans, human factors problems, or documentation errors. Whenever possible, PQA should report to someone who has a vested interest in software quality.
In the Project Organization technique, a member of a PQA organization assigned to a project is treated as a Key Resource. In the Global Best Practices Process Library, the role Process Manager acts as the PQA representative.

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Process Quality Assurance

Relationship with Development Project Organization

To be effective, PQA must work closely with the development organization. They need to understand every part of the process, in detail, and ways it can be effectively customized for projects.
From a development perspective, certainly no one likes the idea of an “outsider” checking to see if they are doing their work correctly. However, if you were preparing to go sky diving for the first time, you wouldn't mind an outsider (experienced in the process) checking to see if you prepared your equipment correctly. PQA should be viewed as a part of the Project Organization that can help prevent potentially embarrassing problems on the project.

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Process Quality Assurance

PQA Personnel

A common failing of PQA organizations is that they are rarely staffed with sufficiently experienced or knowledgeable people. PQA personnel are seldom design/development experts; the experts, of course, are located on the development team. However, with the following knowledge and skills, PQA can monitor the methods and standards used by the development experts to verify that they have been consistently and correctly applied:
  • knowledge of statistical methods
  • knowledge of quality control procedures
  • knowledge of the software development process,
  • an ability to deal effectively with people in controversial situations.

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Process Quality Assurance

PQA Responsibilities

PQA ensures that a requirements traceability matrix or similar tool is used to show that the product specifications cover the requirements.
PQA verifies that an implementation traceability matrix or similar tool is used to show that the product specifications are implemented in the design.
PQA reviews documentation samples to verify that they are produced and maintained according to standards.
PQA checks appropriate samples of development records to ensure they are properly maintained and adequately represent the software design.
PQA periodically verifies that configuration management is being correctly applied. This includes maintaining proper baseline control as well as full change records for requirements, design, code, test and documentation.
PQA reviews all plans to ensure they include the required content. This includes audit of development records for work initiation, management review of status, resources, and schedules.
PQA selectively monitors (based on risk assessments) the performance of the development, documentation, and test activities to ensure consistency with the approved plans and standards.
PQA verifies that all specified tests and peer reviews are properly conducted, that the required results and data are recorded, and that suitable follow-up actions are performed.
PQA audits the Change Control procedures to verify that they are effectively implemented as planned.
PQA selectively reviews the resulting design, code, and documentation to ensure that they adhere to standards.
PQA documents all problems/issues discovered during audits on Problem Report/Change Request form. Most problems/issues are resolved using standard change control procedures. However, because process quality assurance is an area that must remain objective, if the recommended resolution is not satisfactory to the PQA analyst, senior management is pulled in to resolve the issue.
PQA audits corrective action activities, including: audits to ensure all deficiencies are corrected/scheduled/closed (audit problem/change request system(s)), and analysis of problems for trends.

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Project Organization

Documentation

The Project Organization documentation consists of:
Project Organization Chart
Roles and Responsibilities
Project Organization Worksheet

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Documentation

Project Organization Chart

The standard Project Organization chart can be used as a model for producing an organization chart for a particular project.


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Documentation

Roles and Responsibilities

The following information should be recorded for each unit (box) on the Project Organization chart.
Section Name
Section Explanation
Role
The name of the role in the project organization.
Role Description
The distinct responsibilities of the role in the Project Organization. This can be based on the standard role description, and can be customized for this project.
People Assigned
The names of people assigned to this role for the project.
Time Required
The time commitment of each person assigned in the role.


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Documentation

Project Organization Worksheet

This worksheet can be used to assign people to the various Project Organization roles.


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Project Organization

Steps

Step 1: Establish Initial Project Organization
Step 2: Identify Key Business Areas
Step 3: Identify involved personnel for each business area
Step 4: Assign roles to personnel
Step 5: Document Project Organization
Step 6: Determine Training Requirements
Step 7: Place Personnel in the Adopter Populations Curve
Step 8: Finalize the Project Organization
Step 9: Update Project Organization

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Steps

Step 1: Establish Initial Project Organization

Recruit a Project Sponsor for the project and a Stage Manager for the Project Initiation and Planning Stage of the project.
The Project Sponsor will be responsible for the commitment of all resources required to successfully conduct the Project Initiation and Planning Stage, and to facilitate compliance and commitment to all major project decisions. The Project Sponsor will chair the Project Board when it is established.
Ideally the Project Sponsor will be recruited by the Steering Committee, however it may have to be done by the Project Initiation and Planning Stage Manager.
The Stage Manager should have experience in the development approach and/or the business area under study, and possess the level of experience and skill to manage the successful completion of the Project Initiation and Planning Stage.

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Steps

Step 2: Identify Key Business Areas

Identify the Business Areas that you consider to be within the scope of the project and those that need to interface with the project.
If you have developed an Information Flow Diagram, the sources and recipients that are within the scope boundary or directly interface with the boundary are the Key Business Areas. Project Organization members will be selected from these groups.
Include the Information Systems group since certain roles, i.e., Technical Representative of the Project Board, Technical Coordinator, and Technical Team members, will be resourced from this group.
If you have not developed an Information Flow Diagram, the following questions may be used to identify key business areas. These questions may also be used to ensure that the Information Flow Diagram is complete.
  • Which groups will be directly impacted by this business/improvement/systems development project?
  • Which groups are not impacted today but may be impacted in the future?
  • Which groups will your team have to depend on for information about the way things are done today?
  • Which groups will need to do something to ensure successful operation of the new system?
  • Which groups will you count on the make this project a success?
Complete the first column of the Project Organization Worksheet with the Key Business Areas. It may be useful to collect copies of the Line Management organization in the business areas identified.
If you have identified any business areas not already reflected in the Project Scope, revise the scope documents accordingly.

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Steps

Step 3: Identify involved personnel for each business area

Based on your understanding of your company's organization, list the names of key personnel for each business area. For business areas, such as external suppliers and/or customers, it is not always possible to have direct involvement of personnel. If this is the case, it will be necessary to identify personnel from within your organization who will represent the external business areas.
In this step, do not assign roles, just list any personnel that you think should be involved.

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Steps

Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Decide which role or roles, the personnel that you have identified should perform. Use the Project Organization worksheet to assign the roles to the people. Determine the time commitment required for each person in each role.
Refer to the descriptions of standard Role and Responsibilities in the concepts section, and use the following questions and guidelines to help you.
Ensure that you assign the roles of Project Board, Project (Stage) Manager, Project Coordinators and Project Team. The other roles are optional.
Key Stakeholders
Key Resources
Intervening Managers

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Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Project Board

Decide which senior managers should provide overall direction for the project and assign these people to the Project Board roles. There should be 3 to 5 people on the Project Board. Ask the following questions to decide who should be on the Project Board.
Project Sponsor
Customer Representative
Technical Representative
Ensure that all senior Managers with a significant interest in the successful outcome of the project are properly represented. Project Board members should have a vested interest in the success of the project and be able to use their corporate "muscle" to ensure that the project runs smoothly, and that the appropriate participants are empowered.
Generally you want the lowest level person for each role. To allocate roles, you should work up the organization chart until you can find a person who can make the decisions “stick”. In this way, higher level management is not tied up with too many meetings that subordinates should/could handle.
The people involved on a Project Board, are often not at a peer level. Ensure that the Project Board provides a balanced representation from all business areas.
In most circumstances the Project Board members will not fulfill other roles on the same project. The Project or Stage Managers should not be on the Project Board.

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Project Board

Project Sponsor

  • Who is the business executive who should formally bless your project and obtain organization approval?
  • Who should champion this project and represent it to the rest of the organization?
  • Who is responsible for funding?
  • Who would break ties on project board decisions?
  • Who provides the business link between the project and the steering committee?
There may be several candidates but only one should be chosen as Project Sponsor.

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Project Board

Customer Representative

  • Who represents the customers or users most affected by the end result of the project?
  • Who should ensure that the project meets the business needs?
  • Who will provide resources from the business area to work on the project?
  • Who will remove any barriers present in the business area?
You should target only one customer board member, but may need more than one to represent the business areas which are critical to the success of the project. Remember, the more board members you have on the project, the more difficult it will be to bring them together and to obtain decisions from them. The managers that are not assigned to the Customer Representative role will become Key Stakeholders.

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Project Board

Technical Representative

  • Who will provide technical resources necessary to complete the project?
  • Who is ultimately responsible for the technical quality of the project deliverables?
  • Who will remove any barriers present in the Information Systems Area?
This individual is typically assigned from the Information Systems organization.

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Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Key Stakeholders

Assign all managers on the worksheet who have not been made Project Board members to this role. Use the following questions to confirm:
  • Who could slow us down if they disagreed with our approach?
  • Who might the Project Board Members ask informally to evaluate project scope and financial viability?
  • Who is not on the Project Board, but heads up a business area included on the worksheet?
  • Who has people in their area whose jobs might change as a result of the project?
  • From whom do we need political buy-in?

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Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Project (Stage) Manager

Identify a suitable person to manage the next stage of the project. Ask the question:
  • Who should manage the next stage of the project on a day-to-day basis?
The Project Manager's mandate is to produce all the end-products of the stage on time, within budget, and to the required quality standards. The Project Manager is not necessarily an Information Systems person. Sometimes the best person to manage the Project Initiation and Planning and Implementation stages of the project is a member of the business area.
  • Will the Project Manager work as a team member as well?
  • How much time will the Project Manager require to perform the Project Management activities?
  • Is there any need for multiple Stage Managers?
An overall Project Manager and several Stage Managers may be required in any of the following circumstances:
  • a project which will be run as a series of sequential or parallel increments
  • a multiple project environment
  • a large project (or program) which consists of a series of component projects
The Stage Manager should be involved in planning the stage for which he/she is to be responsible. The following skills are required:
  • appropriate level of management experience
  • awareness of the business and technical areas
  • thorough knowledge of chosen Project Management Standards

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Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Project Coordinators

Decide if the Project Manager will require support in the coordination and control activities required for the project.
These are supporting roles to the Project Manager. These roles may be filled by the Project Manager if the project is relatively small and the project manager has time to perform them. These roles may also be filled by Project Team members or Key Resources.
Planning Coordinator
Business Coordinator
Technical Coordinator

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Project Coordinators

Planning Coordinator

  • Will the project manager need help with creating and updating project plans, developing estimates, monitoring progress, etc.?
  • Who is experienced with using the project management and scheduling tools?
  • Who has strong administrative skills?
  • Who has detailed knowledge of the project management standards and techniques?

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Project Coordinators

Business Coordinator

  • Who can help us obtain detailed information concerning how a particular business area works?
  • Who knows how the business area is organized?
  • Who can ensure the quality of project/stage deliverables from the business perspective?
  • Who can help us identify the best Key Resources from a particular business area?

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Project Coordinators

Technical Coordinator

  • Who is skilled in the techniques used to create project/stage deliverables?
  • Who can ensure the technical quality of project/stage deliverables?
  • Who can help us identify the best Key Resource for a particular technical issue?

Process GuidePrevious - Technical CoordinatorNext - Key ResourcesGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Step 4:  Assign roles to personnel

Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Project Team

  • What skills are required on the project.
  • Who has these skills?
  • Is business representation required on a day to day basis?
Team members are typically full time assignments. Team members may change from stage to stage when project activities require different skill sets. Team members are usually the easiest roles to assign on a project.

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Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Key Resources

Decide if there are any skills that may be required at certain points in the project, that cannot be provided by team members.
The following questions will help you identify Key Resources:
  • From whom do we need functional buy-in for how the system works?
  • Who will use the system?
  • Who will help us establish and confirm the business case (i.e., finance)?
  • Who in the business area is very good at getting information?
  • Which business areas will supply us with information required at this stage to produce deliverables?
  • What special skills are needed in this stage (i.e., Data Base Administrator)?
  • Who is familiar with technical standards and can evaluate whether the stage deliverables meet these standards?
  • Who can ensure that the business requirements are being interpreted correctly and are accurately reflected in the stage deliverables?
  • Who can ensure that the development process is used correctly on the project?
  • Does this stage require involvement of any other individuals such as financial auditors, technical consultants, operations personnel, data administrators, contract negotiators, database administrators, process auditors, workshop facilitators, training developers, etc.?

Process GuidePrevious - Key ResourcesNext - Step 5:  Document Project OrganizationGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Step 4:  Assign roles to personnel

Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Intervening Managers

Review the line management structure and decide if any managers between the Project Manager/Team Members and the Project Board need to be informed of project progress.
  • Are there any intervening management levels between the Project Manager, Team Members and the Project Board?
  • Do any of the intervening managers need to be kept informed about the project?
  • What information will these intervening managers require?
  • Are there any intervening managers who could disrupt the project, perhaps by re-directing their staff that are on the project?

Process GuidePrevious - Intervening ManagersNext - Step 6:  Determine Training RequirementsGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Steps

Steps

Step 5: Document Project Organization

Complete the Project Organization documentation for the project.
The Project Organization chart should be customized for the project and the names of the individuals performing the roles can be added to the chart.
The Roles and Responsibilities documentation should be completed for the project. The standard role descriptions can be used as a starting point, and can be modified to explain the exact responsibilities agreed for the project.

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Steps

Step 6: Determine Training Requirements

Assess the capabilities and skills of the project team against the skills required for the project. Based upon this assessment establish a training plan to acquaint the project team members with the methodologies, technologies, and business areas under study.
Update the project schedule to incorporate scheduled training activities.

Process GuidePrevious - Step 6:  Determine Training RequirementsNext - Step 8:  Finalize the Project OrganizationGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Steps

Steps

Step 7: Place Personnel in the Adopter Populations Curve

Place each individual in the Project Organization in one of the categories on the population curve, based on your perception of how they will react to the changes associated with the project.
If you find that a crucial player (e.g., Board Member) is a laggard, try to find someone else to fulfill the role. If this is not possible, you will have to sell the project early and very hard to that individual.
The Adopter Populations Curve may also help to make the decision when more than one individual could potentially fulfill a given role.

Process GuidePrevious - Step 7:  Place Personnel in the Adopter Populations CurveNext - Step 9:  Update Project OrganizationGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Steps

Steps

Step 8: Finalize the Project Organization

At this point, all listed names should be assigned to at least one role. If not, confirm that unassigned people really need to be involved with the project. The key to establishing the Project Organization is to ensure all key individuals are assigned to the appropriate role without overwhelming the project with too many people.
Review the Project Organization to ensure that the proposed organization includes all participants needed to achieve the project objective.
Conduct Briefings with all participants to discuss assigned roles.

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Steps

Step 9: Update Project Organization

The Project Organization must be reviewed and potentially modified at the end of every stage in preparation for the subsequent stage. Repeat steps 2 to 8 and confirm the existing role assignments, or revise the assignments as needed, based on the following:
  • Skills required for the next stage activities
  • Performance of existing individuals in fulfilling assigned roles
  • Scope change requiring different business or technical representation
The Project Organization may also require modification within a stage due to unplanned events. Examples include:
  • Personnel changes
  • Performance of existing individuals in fulfilling assigned roles
  • Scope change requiring different business or technical representation
  • Newly identified activities
  • Additional resources required

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Project Organization

Tutorial

Small Project
Large Project
Very Large Project

Process GuidePrevious - TutorialNext - Step 1:  Establish Initial Project OrganizationGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Tutorial

Tutorial

Small Project

The example project is to create an inquiry system into an existing database.
Step 1: Establish Initial Project Organization
Step 2: Identify Key Business Areas
Step 3: Identify involved personnel for each business area
Step 4: Assign roles to personnel
Step 5: Document Project Organization
Step 6: Determine Training Requirements
Step 7: Place Personnel in the Support Map
Step 8: Finalize the Project Organization

Process GuidePrevious - Small ProjectNext - Step 2:  Identify Key Business AreasGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Small Project

Small Project

Step 1: Establish Initial Project Organization

Margaret Weaver has requested that the Information Systems group develop a series of inquiries into the existing Marketing Database. Margaret asks the System Development Manager if Neil Blimp is available to manage the project. Neil is available and so this establishes the Initial Project Organization. This is represented in the chart below.

Process GuidePrevious - Step 1:  Establish Initial Project OrganizationNext - Step 3:  Identify involved personnel for each business areaGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Small Project

Small Project

Step 2: Identify Key Business Areas

There are three business areas identified.
The Tactical Marketing group currently use a spreadsheet to extract data from the Marketing database and to create the reports they want. This is taking up too much time.
Some of the reports are for the Corporate Marketing Group.
Information Systems are involved as the 'supplier' of resources for the project.
So the Business Areas affected are:
  • Tactical Marketing
  • Corporate Marketing
  • Information Systems

Process GuidePrevious - Step 2:  Identify Key Business AreasNext - Step 4:  Assign roles to personnelGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Small Project

Small Project

Step 3: Identify involved personnel for each business area

The people identified in each business area that should be involved with the project are:
  • Tactical Marketing
    Margaret Weaver - Director
    Susan Devonshire - Marketing Assistant, reports directly to Margaret
  • Corporate Marketing
    Sara Major - Vice President of Corporate Marketing
    Bill Blacklaw - Marketing Analyst, reports directly to Sara
  • Information Systems
Charles King, System Development Manager
Neil Blimp, Systems Analyst, reports directly to Charles

Process GuidePrevious - Step 3:  Identify involved personnel for each business areaNext - Project BoardGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Small Project

Small Project

Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Project Board
Key Stakeholders
Project Manager
Project Coordinators
Project Team
Key Resources
Intervening Managers

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Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Project Board
The Project Board is fairly easy to define.
Margaret is the Sponsor of the project and so will fill the Project Sponsor role.
Charles is responsible for the technical aspects of the project and so will fill the Technical Representative role.
The only question is who should fill the Customer representative role. Both Sara and Bill will use the inquiries that are developed. Using the principle of working up the line organization structure, Bill should be on the Project Board, if we think he will be a strong enough representative. We decide to appoint Bill.

Process GuidePrevious - Project BoardNext - Project ManagerGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Step 4:  Assign roles to personnel

Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Key Stakeholders
The only senior person we identified who is not on the Project Board is Sara. As Bill, her direct report, is on the Project Board, he can keep Sara informed about the project.
We decide that we do not need any Key Stakeholders.

Process GuidePrevious - Key StakeholdersNext - Project CoordinatorsGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Step 4:  Assign roles to personnel

Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Project Manager
The candidates for project manager are Neil and Susan. Neil has managed projects before and he is chosen as the Project Manager. The business people are happy with this assignment.

Process GuidePrevious - Project ManagerNext - Project TeamGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Step 4:  Assign roles to personnel

Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Project Coordinators
Neil has used the standard project scheduling tool and will perform the Planning Coordinator role.
Neil knows most of the people in Information Systems and so will perform the Technical Coordinator role.
Susan will perform the Business Coordinator role.

Process GuidePrevious - Project CoordinatorsNext - Key ResourcesGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Step 4:  Assign roles to personnel

Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Project Team
As this is a small project, Neil will carry out much of the project work. The intention is to use an on-line database inquiry tool with which Neil is very familiar.
Susan will also work on the project. She developed the current spreadsheet system and has a good idea of what the requirements for the inquiries are. She also wants to learn how to use the on-line inquiry tool.

Process GuidePrevious - Project TeamNext - Intervening ManagersGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Step 4:  Assign roles to personnel

Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Key Resources
You may have got the idea by now that Neil is a super hero. Well, he doesn't know very much about the Marketing Database. Susan knows a little, but the database download program she uses for the spreadsheet system was developed by the company's database administrator, Tom Forrest.
Tom is assigned to the role of Key Resource - DBA. He will be required for approximately half a day each week.

Process GuidePrevious - Key ResourcesNext - Step 5:  Document Project OrganizationGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Step 4:  Assign roles to personnel

Step 4: Assign roles to personnel

Intervening Managers
There are no intervening managers between Neil and Susan and the Project Board members.

Process GuidePrevious - Intervening ManagersNext - Step 6:  Determine Training RequirementsGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Small Project

Small Project

Step 5: Document Project Organization

The Project Organization chart is shown below.
The Roles and Responsibilities defined for the project are:
Role
Description
Assignments
Time
Project Board - Project Sponsor
Funds and provides overall direction for the project.
Margaret Weaver
1 day every two months
Project Board - Customer Rep
Ensure that the system will be usable by Corporate Marketing.
Bill Blacklaw
1 day every two months
Project Board - Technical Rep
Ensure that the system follows corporate standards and that the company's system development process is used on the project.
Charles King
1 day every two months
Project Manager
Manages the Project on a day-to-day basis
Neil Blimp
15%
Planning Coordinator
Create and update project plans by entering and maintaining plan in project management tool. Record progress, maintain issues list, distribute project documentation as required.
Neil Blimp
5%
Business Coordinator
Knows the current reporting system and knows what inquiries are required. Knows who to contact in the Marketing departments for requirements and reviews.
Susan Devonshire
5%
Technical Coordinator
Provides technical expertise and/or resources and knows who to contact in I.S. Responsible for the technical quality.
Neil Blimp
5%
Team Members
Carry out all project work as scheduled.
Neil Susan
70%

90%

Key Resource
Provide help in understanding Marketing database structure. Consult on and approve database calls.
Tom Forrest
Half day a week.


Process GuidePrevious - Step 5:  Document Project OrganizationNext - Step 7:  Place Personnel in the Support MapGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Small Project

Small Project

Step 6: Determine Training Requirements

Neil is experienced with the process, techniques and tools that will be used on the project.
Susan will learn the database inquiry tool as the project progresses. The project schedule needs to allow for this 'on the job' training. Susan does not need to attend a training class.

Process GuidePrevious - Step 6:  Determine Training RequirementsNext - Early RisersGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Small Project

Small Project

Step 7: Place Personnel in the Support Map

The project personnel were assessed as follows.
Early Risers
Early Adapters
Missouris
Resistors

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Step 7: Place Personnel in the Support Map

Early Risers
The description of the Early Riser fits Neil like a glove. The reason why he knows about all the software is that he is the first one to use most things.
This is a concern with having Neil as the Project Manager - will he see the project through. The project is only scheduled to last four months and the Project Board feel that this is a short enough time span for Neil to retain interest. The Project Board decide that Neil should present a progress report every month to address this risk.

Process GuidePrevious - Early RisersNext - MissourisGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Step 7:  Place Personnel in the Support Map

Step 7: Place Personnel in the Support Map

Early Adapters
Margaret Weaver is an Early Adapter. The reason why she asked for the inquiry system, and for Neil to work on the project, was because of a similar system developed for the Sales Department.
Susan Devonshire is also an Early Adapter. She learned how to use spreadsheets in the early 80's and is now an expert.

Process GuidePrevious - Early AdaptersNext - ResistorsGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Step 7:  Place Personnel in the Support Map

Step 7: Place Personnel in the Support Map

Missouris
Charles King is a Missouri. He will not believe anything until he sees it. He does not believe there is a bottom to the ocean!

Process GuidePrevious - MissourisNext - Step 8:  Finalize the Project OrganizationGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Step 7:  Place Personnel in the Support Map

Step 7: Place Personnel in the Support Map

Resistors
Bill Blacklaw and Tom Forrest are resistors.
This is not a problem for the project in Tom's case. We need Tom's established knowledge of the Marketing database, Tom's resistance does not stretch to resisting people using the database.
Bill Blacklaw could be a problem. Margaret and Charles think they can handle him on the Project Board.

Process GuidePrevious - ResistorsNext - Large Project  GlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Small Project

Small Project

Step 8: Finalize the Project Organization

The only change required to the Project Organization is to increase the time commitment of the Project Board members slightly. The monthly review meeting will be a one hour meeting, with the already planned bi-monthly meeting still being a half day meeting.

Process GuidePrevious - Step 8:  Finalize the Project OrganizationNext - Project Organization ChartGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Tutorial

Tutorial

Large Project

This example takes us into the 25th century, shortly after the movie Star Trek® - Generations™ has finished. Starfleet needs a new flagship and the following team is established to design the new Enterprise.
Project Organization Chart
Project Board
Key Stakeholders
Project Manager
Coordinators
Project Team
Key Resources
Intervening Managers
Support Map

Star Trek® is a registered trademark of Paramount Pictures.

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Large Project

Project Organization Chart


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Large Project

Project Board

Admiral Blake is in charge of Fleet Operations and will fund the project. Jean-Luc Picard will continue to captain the new Enterprise and so is the obvious choice as Customer Representative. Rebecca Mann is Starfleet's Technical Director and is responsible for the overall technical quality of the fleet.

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Large Project

Key Stakeholders

There are seven fleets within Starfleet with an admiral in charge of each. Three of these fleets are due new ships that will use the new Enterprise design. The admirals in charge of these fleets are Key Stakeholders.

Process GuidePrevious - Key StakeholdersNext - CoordinatorsGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Large Project

Large Project

Project Manager

Will Riker, the first officer of the Enterprise, is the obvious choice as Project Manager. He has led numerous projects in his time with Starfleet and is respected by most of the people likely to be in the project team.

Process GuidePrevious - Project ManagerNext - Project TeamGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Large Project

Large Project

Coordinators

Worf, as a Klingon, is a great planner. He will be able to help Will plan, monitor and motivate the team.
Deanna knows pretty well everybody and will be able to obtain help on the business side of the project if required.
Geordi La Forge, keeps in touch with all the technical advances in Starfleet and will be able to identify the right technical people to help with any issue that may arise during the project.

Process GuidePrevious - CoordinatorsNext - Key ResourcesGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Large Project

Large Project

Project Team

Picard and Riker want to use the Enterprise crew in the design project. It is hoped that they can stay together for the next movie.
The technical team members are the three people that have solved most of the problems ever faced by the Enterprise and are a very inventive and skilled group. These are Geordi, Mr. Data and Wesley Crusher. Wesley has been persuaded to work on this project, even though he is no longer with Starfleet.
James Riker has been making a name for himself in the shipyards of Omecron Delta 5 where the ship will be built. Starfleet want James who is one of their best designers to work on the project.
The Business representatives have been selected to ensure that in designing the new ship, the needs of the crew are not forgotten. Deanna as ship's counselor, Beverley as senior ship's surgeon and Guinan as chief barmaid should achieve this.

Process GuidePrevious - Project TeamNext - Intervening ManagersGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Large Project

Large Project

Key Resources

Mr. Spock has spent the last 80 years tinkering with computers and is one of the leading computer designers in the galaxy. He is no longer in Starfleet, but has agreed to act as a consultant on the design of the new ship computer.
Mr. Worf will provide advice on weapons systems and cloaking technology for the new ship. He is also a source of information on Klingon ships. While he will never betray the Klingon Empire, he will ensure that the new Enterprise is capable of facing up to the best battleships the Klingons or any other empire can produce.

Process GuidePrevious - Key ResourcesNext - Support MapGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Large Project

Large Project

Intervening Managers

Bill Kirk (no relation) is James Riker's boss and wants to be kept informed of progress. Bill is Head of Design at Delta 5, and reports to Blake.

Process GuidePrevious - Intervening ManagersNext - Very Large ProjectGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Large Project

Large Project

Support Map

There are no Resistors in the 25th Century.
The term 'Missouris' has been replaced by 'Visaris'. The Visari are a race with 27 eyes located in various parts of their bodies, who really do want to see everything.
The Project Organization is actually made up entirely of Early Risers and Early Adapters, which bodes well.
There are a couple of inter-personnel issues that could be a concern. James Riker is actually a duplicate of Will Riker, created in a freak transporter malfunction several years ago. James originally resented the fact that Will had lived his life for eight years while he barely survived alone on a hostile planet. James says he is over that now.
There is also the fact that James, Will and Worf have all been Deanna's lovers at some time in this Universe or a parallel one. We'll just have to see what happens.

Process GuidePrevious - Support MapNext - Project Initiation and PlanningGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Tutorial

Tutorial

Very Large Project

PLC Software Inc. specializes in providing software to assist in acquisitions and mergers. The company develops and sells a product called $$SAFE that is selling well to large corporations around the world. PLC Software is a global company, with a development center in Phoenix, Arizona. There are Sales and Support offices located in the US, South America, Hong Kong, Brussels and Calcutta.
The company is about to start a major development project, code name Krakatoa, to develop the next generation of PLC products. The new product will include modeling capabilities, to model companies and an expert system to help the user decide whether a takeover or merger would be beneficial, based on the business models.
The following sections explain the Project Organization for the Krakotoa project, that was established during Project Initiation and Planning and then updated at the End of Business Process Definition.

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Very Large Project

Project Initiation and Planning

Project Organization Chart
Project Board
Key Stakeholders
Project Manager
Coordinators
Project Team
Key Resources
Intervening Managers

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Project Initiation and Planning

Project Organization Chart

Process GuidePrevious - Project Organization ChartNext - Key StakeholdersGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Project Initiation and Planning

Project Initiation and Planning

Project Board
Mary Dean, the CEO is the Project Sponsor. She is able to authorize adequate funding for the project. Dick Pleasance, as VP of Product Management is responsible for the success of the product and will ensure that it is both usable and commercially viable. Robert Midway is the Development Director and is ultimately responsible for all PLC products.
Ingrid Price, VP of Corporate Marketing, provides another aspect of Customer Representation. She will be responsible for devising marketing campaigns for the product, and can help make decisions on product functionality, market requirements and time to market issues.
This is a very senior group for the Project Board, but the global and cross functional nature of the project demands this.

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Project Initiation and Planning

Key Stakeholders
The managers of the various areas affected by the project and the final product are Key Stakeholders.
Dale Andrews, Jose Chavez, Gerhardt Schneider and Vijay Chandrasekher are the VPs of Operations in the US, South America, Europe and Asia, respectively. They are responsible for selling and supporting PLC products and so have a keen interest in the new development.

Process GuidePrevious - Key StakeholdersNext - CoordinatorsGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Project Initiation and Planning

Project Initiation and Planning

Project Manager
Robin Smith is responsible for managing releases of $$SAFE, and so is the obvious choice for the Project Manager.

Process GuidePrevious - Project ManagerNext - Project TeamGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Project Initiation and Planning

Project Initiation and Planning

Coordinators
Kate Evans is a member of the Product Management group and has recent experience in using a project scheduling tool. She is the obvious choice for Planning Coordinator.
Robin keeps in touch will PLC staff supporting $$SAFE and with clients. She will be the Business Coordinator as well as Project Manager.
Will Burns keeps in touch with technical developments both in PLC and industry in general and is the choice for Technical Coordinator.

Process GuidePrevious - CoordinatorsNext - Key ResourcesGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Project Initiation and Planning

Project Initiation and Planning

Project Team
Brenda Davis, Ajit Chandra and Will Burns are Senior Systems Engineers and will form the Krakotoa technical team.
Kate Evans, Kim Lister and Mike West are members of the $$SAFE Product Management Group. They will be the Business team members.

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Project Initiation and Planning

Key Resources
The Key Resources will provide detailed guidance on the product features and are selected to represent the different PLC business and geographic areas.
Ron Forest is a Sales Manager responsible for selling $$SAFE in the US. Dave Campbell and Rita Taylor provide pre and post sales support on $$SAFE in the US.
Ruth Erikson provides a perspective from Europe, and Bruce Davies from Asia.

Process GuidePrevious - Key ResourcesNext - End of Business Process DefinitionGlossaryShortcutSummaryUp - Project Initiation and Planning

Project Initiation and Planning

Intervening Managers
Eric Garcia heads up the $$SAFE software development group and Brenda, Ajit and Will report to him. Eric reports to Robert Midway.
Steven Brown is in charge of the algorithms that are used in $$SAFE to determine merger decisions and Kim Lister reports to him. Steven reports to Dick Pleasance.
Maria Cohen and Cyril Baker are Regional VPs in the US and report to Dale Andrews (a Key Stakeholder). Dave and Rita report to Maria, and Ron reports to Cyril.

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Very Large Project

End of Business Process Definition

The organization was changed at the end of Business Process Definition in preparation for Application Definition. The project has been broken into increments to reduce risk and improve the time to market of the product.

The Project Board, Key Stakeholders, Project Manager, Intervening Managers and Key Resources remain the same.
The Project has been divided into two increments. These will run in parallel, but Increment 2 will be completed 3 to 6 months after Increment 1. A Stage Manager is appointed for each Increment.
Three other Stages have been identified. These are Testing, Documentation and Training. These Stages will run in parallel with the two development stages. A Stage Manager has been appointed for each of these Stages.
More staff have been added to each Stage Team.
The Planning and Technical Co-ordinators remain the same, but will take on a greater proportion of the people's time. Kate takes over the Business Co-ordinator role to free Robin for her larger Project Manager role.